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Information Library - Research - Anti-Fungal


Layman's Introduction


Apart from the many positive benefits derived from various types of fungi, such as being a source of food and medicines, some fungi produce compounds that are toxic to humans. These fungi are unfortunately the cause of some uncomforatble and even dangerous infections. Fulhold has carried out a number of research projects to check the effectiveness of CHD-FA against fungal pathogens. In the reports below you will see that CHD-FA is effective against a wide range of fungi (both yeasts and moulds are types of fungi) and often at significantly lower costs than other products.

Aspergillus is a type of mould that produces a toxin called aflotoxin that is both a toxin and a carcinogen (cancer causing agent). Zygomycetes can cause serious infections, particularly for immunocompromised or diabetic individuals. These infections can be both on the skin surface and internal within the gastrointestinal system.

Candida comprises a large group of fungal species that are widespread in humans affecting both men and women although the most common forms are those that affect the vagina. Many candida species are resistant to drugs. The research carried out showed that no Candida species tested were resistant to CHD-FA. It was also shown that combining CHD-FA with drugs that are no longer effective against resistant Candida species demonstrated synergy between CHD-FA and the previously ineffective drugs. One important implication has also been that by combining CHD-FA with some forms of toxic drugs, less of the toxic drug is required, and so the treatment can continue for longer than would otherwise be the case.

Some Fungi are resistant to nearly all known treatmetns. The work at the Fungiscope Institute in Cologne Germany showed CHD-FA to be effective against a wide range of resistant, emerging fungal pathogens.

The terms in-vitro and in-vivo refer to work done in laboratory cultures or in live animals respectively.

In vitro Aspergillus & Zygomycete data


Eurpotec Fulhold Report In vitro efficacy of CHD-FA against Aspergillus and Zygomycetes - September 2008

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In vitro Candida data


Euprotec Fulhold Report In vitro efficacy of CHD-FA against Candida July 2008

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In vitro efficacy of CHD-FA against Malassezia & Dermatophytes


Eurpotec Fulhold Report In vitro efficacy of CHD-FA against Malassezia November 2008

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In vitro Biofilm data


Eurpotec Fulhold Report In vitro efficacy of CHD-FA against Bacterial and Fungal biofilms June 2009

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Validated Report on the in-vivo Efficacy of CHD-FA to treat Candida


In summary the findings were;
  • Experiments were established using 0.125ml gavages of 2% and 0.5% CHD-FA twice daily (equivalent to 1% and 0.25% CHD-FA administered at 10ml/kg).
  • 5ml/kg of 2% or 0.5% CHD-FA (equivalent to 10ml/kg at 1% and 0.25% CHD-FA) was well tolerated in mice.
  • 5ml/kg of 2% or 0.5% CHD-FA (equivalent to 10ml/kg at 1% and 0.25% CHD-FA) was effective at reducing the kidney burden on mice infected with Candida albicans. The burden following treatment was significantly lower than vehicle treated mice (~0.6 log10 cfu/gram reduction).
  • 5ml/kg of 2% or 0.5% CHD-FA (equivalent to 10ml/kg at 1% and 0.25% CHD-FA) was additive when used in combination with fluconazole. The combined reduction in tissue burden was significantly superior to either treatment used as monotherapy.
Please use the contacts page to request a full copy of this report.

Validated Report on the in-vivo Efficacy of CHD-FA in the treatment of Aspergillus


In summary the findings were:
  • The Aspergillus terreus strain used in this study was highly resistant to amphotericin B. Experiments were established using 0.25ml gavages of 2% and 0.5% CHD-FA buffered to pH 5.0 twice daily (administered at 10ml/kg).
  • 10ml/kg of 2% or 0.5% CHD-FA was ineffective as monotherapy at reducing the kidney burden on mice infected with Aspergillus terreus.
  • Amphotericin B at 0.5 or 2.5mg/kg was ineffective as monotherapy at reducing the kidney burden on mice infected with Aspergillus terreus.
  • 10ml/kg of 2% or 0.5% CHD-FA was additive when used in combination with 2.5mg/kg of amphotericin B. The combined reduction in tissue burden was superior to either treatment used as monotherapy.
  • 10ml/kg of 0.5% CHD-FA when used in combination with 2.5mg/kg of amphotericin B was as effective as posaconazole or caspofungin at reducing the kidney burden.
  • The strain ofAspergillus terreus used in this study is highly resistant to amphotericin B but was treatable by the combination of CDH-FA and amphotericin B.

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